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All about menopause menopause periods signs and symptoms of menopause causes of menopause premature menopause perimenopause postmenopause menopause relief and treatment hormone replacement therapy (HRT) benefits of hormone replacement therapy risk factors for hormone replacement therapy hormones for hormone replacement therapy ways of taking HRT natural hormone replacement therapy (NHRT) herbal remedies for menopause relief estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) menopause diet

What are the risk factors for hormone replacement therapy (HRT)?

HHormone replacement therapy (HRT) risks and possible side effects include:


  • Increased risk of endometrial cancer in women with a uterus if estrogen is taken without progesterone or a progestin.
  • Slightly increased risk of breast cancer after 4 or more years of HRT, as shown in the WHI study that used continuous combined oral estrogen and progestin (Prempro). Estrogen alone or other HRT regimens may not raise the risk of breast cancer significantly.
  • Increased breast density, making mammograms more difficult to interpret and possibly increasing breast cancer risk. This appears to be an effect primarily associated with taking oral progestin continuously with estrogen (e.g., Prempro).
  • Slightly increased risk of ovarian cancer.
  • Slightly increased risk of blood clots, associated primarily with oral estrogens such as Premarin.
  • Increased risk of gallbladder disease, associated primarily with oral estrogens such as Premarin.
  • Slightly increased risk of heart attack or stroke, both in women with cardiovascular disease and in healthy women. This effect may be associated primarily with HRT using continuous combined oral estrogen and progestin (Prempro) or the daily use of an oral progestin such as Provera with estrogen.
  • Breast pain (often a temporary problem
  • Nausea, associated primarily with oral estrogens.
  • Bloating and fluid retention, primarily associated with progestins, e.g., medroxyprogesterone acetate.
  • Negative effects on mood, primarily associated with progestins, e.g., medroxyprogesterone acetate.
  • More information on menopause

    What is menopause? - Menopause is a stage of the human female reproductive cycle that occurs as the ovaries stop producing estrogen, causing the reproductive system to gradually shut down.
    When does menopause occur? - Most premenopausal women experience changes in their menstrual cycle. Perimenopause is the phase before menopause actually takes place, when ovarian hormone production is declining and fluctuating, causing a host of symptoms.
    What are the signs and symptoms of menopause? - The symptoms of menopause can be divided into early and late onset symptoms. Early symptoms include abnormal vaginal bleeding, hot flashes, and mood changes. Late symptoms include vaginal dryness and irritation, osteoporosis, and heart disease.
    What causes menopause? - Menopause occurs when the ovaries are totally depleted of eggs and no amount of stimulation from the regulating hormones can force them to work.
    What is premature menopause? - Premature menopause is menopause that happens before the age of 40 - whether it is natural or induced.
    What is perimenopause? - Perimenopause is the stage of a woman's life before menopause. The perimenopause is a normal period of transition between the childbearing years and menopause.
    What is postmenopause? - Postmenopause is the time when most of the transitional stress of menopause has passed. Since postmenopausal women produce less estrogen, there are some symptoms that they might experience.
    What are the treatment options for menopause? - Treatments for menopause can be divided based on those symptoms that are present in a given woman at a specific time. The standard of treatment for menopausal symptoms is replacement of one or both of the major female hormones.
    What is hormone replacement therapy (HRT)? - Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a treatment for women who have reached or passed menopause, which often is referred to as "the change of life."
    What are the benefits of hormone replacement therapy? - The benefits of hormone replacement therapy include controlling menopause symptoms, preventing heart disease, preventing osteoporosis, preventing some hard-to-detect female cancers.
    What are the risk factors for hormone replacement therapy? - Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) risks and possible side effects include increased risk of cancers, blood clots, gallbladder disease, and heart attack or stroke.
    What hormones are used in hormone replacement therapy? - The menopause is associated with a relative lack of oestrogens and progestogens. Replacement therapy always requires oestrogens, which are given continuously.
    How is hormone replacement therapy taken? - There are many ways of taking HRT, including a daily tablet, skin patches, a small pellet or implant under the skin, a gel applied daily to the skin, or a nasal spray.
    What is natural hormone replacement therapy? - Natural hormone replacement therapy (NHRT) is a combination of human estrogens and natural human progesterone.
    What are herbal remedies for menopause? - Some women take herbal, natural, or plant-based products to help their symptoms. Wort and chasteberry may help some women with depressed mood.
    What is estrogen replacement therapy (ERT)? - Estrogen Replacement Therapy (ERT) is therapy to replace estrogen no longer made by a woman's body because she is post-menopausal or her ovaries have been damaged or removed.
    What menopause diet is suggested? - Eating right can definitely ease the various discomforts of menopause including hot flashes, bloating and mood swings.
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    Menopause relief herbal remedy
    MellowPause is a 100% safe, non-addictive natural herbal formula containing a selection of herbs to support a woman's overall health during perimenopause and menopause. MellowPause has been used for many years to safely support the female system during the common process of menopause.

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    All information is intended for reference only. Please consult your physician for accurate medical advices and treatment. Copyright 2005, health-cares.net, all rights reserved. Last update: July 18, 2005